In Michigan s Bay City suburb of Essexville on October 17, 1898, a smiling Governor Hazen B. Pingree witnessed to witness the beginning of Michigan's sugar harvest & # 39; By doing so, Pingree announces a period of investment in sugar-cane marketing that is marked by the establishment of companies that sometimes rise at night to extraordinary lengths and who also fly easily to forget, bringing the savings of thousands of small investors. Some of the companies that survived the turbulent early years, however, could one day produce over one billion pounds of sugar each year.
Governor Pingree has rejected his support behind Public Act 48, a bill that promises more money for sugarcane made in Michigan. Its path has stimulated the establishment of sugar factories throughout the state and according to its supporters, go a long way in repairing lost jobs due to the rapid expansion of the state-made timber industry & # 39; fifty years. Michigan was once a land of iron forests in the woods that in 1812 was declared by government surveyors unsuitable for human habitation. Fading through the forests of Maine, New York, and Pennsylvania, wooden barons shift their attention to Michigan & # 39; s hundreds of millions of board feet of white pine. Now that all but lost state political leaders need a new source of economic wealth.
The governor and executive executives of the company, Thomas Cranage, Benjamin Boutell, Nathan Bradley, men whose fortunes have been garnered by the timber industry, heard the factory's satisfaction in submitting beets from storage holes to enter. in the first of the twenty-three factories where workers, merchants, farmers, and politicians devote natural differences to combine their skills for the common good. An idea that traveled from Europe almost seven decades ago.
France developed sugarbeets as a source of white sugar sugar less than a hundred years ago. Napoleon Bonaparte, after losing control of France continued the French tradition of threatening England with war. In keeping with his bellicose intent, he set a precedent for English shipments and made effective cuts to access to French ports in France for the transfer of sugar cane from the West Indies. Sugar stocks were piled up in English ports while French people suffered from this shortage.
Until the refusal of the British trade in 1806, France met its needs with a steady supply of sugar cane from Guadeloupe and Martinique in the Caribbean and Réunion on the Indian Ocean. In response to the unsatisfactory demand made by his testimony and the counter-assertion imposed on England, Napoleon decided to encourage sugar production from sugarbeets. Experiments ten years earlier have found the ability of root canal as a sugar-sugar substitute. Convincing are the consequences offered by representatives of the sugar industry to pay the modern equivalent of $ 120,000 to Karl Franz Achard, the scientist who was largely responsible for conducting research in exchange for his prohibition on the possibilities of extraction sugar from sugarbeets. His rejection of the offer not only confirmed his strength of character but also laid the foundation of an industry.
By 1812, forty factories were operating in France. These factories, minuscule by the 21st century standards, handle almost one hundred thousand tons of beets made on seventeen thousand acres, and out of them, produce over three hundred million pounds of sugar. From France, the industry spread to Germany, Russia and other countries. In Germany, Achard founded a school attended by students from all over Europe. When students returned to their home countries, they brought in technical information that encouraged the establishment of several factories. Eventually, the descendants of Achard's family living in Michigan where they are involved in the # x sugar kid industry;
Sugarbeet is like a turnip on steroids. Its weight varies from three to five pounds. A thick canopy of wide-leafed leaves protects it from the sun. Sugarbeet is a member of the Goosefoot family and has such cousins, red beets, spinach, pork grass, sheep and thistle in Russia and, more specifically, the rare Beta vulgaris, which includes no only sugarbeets but also tables of beets, Swiss chard and mangel-wurzels. Its roots can cover six to eight feet of soil that are particularly resistant to climatic conditions such as those found in Arizona and Michigan where they enjoy a growing season from March to October. The period after the growing season, the time when sugar is extracted from the beet and then refined, is referred to by the industry as the "campaign".
Michigan campaign & # 39; inaugural sugarbeet campaign is, by every account, a remarkable achievement. Farmers harvest an average of 10.3 tonnes of beets from each of 3,103 hectares for a total of 32,047 tonnes of sugar. The sugar content of beets averaged 12.93 percent with a purity of 82% from which the factory extracted 5,685,552 pounds of sugar, giving an extraction rate of 65%.
Farmers signed their agreement to pay the Michigan Sugar Company an average of $ 4.51 for each tonne of beets, an amount that sugarbeets immediately listed as a major cash crop. Happy investors are thriving. Public Act 48 guarantees a profit to sugar manufacturers by promising to pay a full amount equal to one-third of the estimated three cents per pound of labor costs. The manufacturer's obligation & # 39; s is guaranteed to pay $ 4 for every ton of beets containing at least 12% sugar and a balance of $ 4 for all beets with a greater or lesser percentage of sugar.
At the anticipated price of four dollars, there is no fruit in human history that has the potential to make such a large return from just a few acres. A farmer with a higher average ability puts ten & # 39; g of sugar on a profit of $ 900 and if his family is given a lot of labor, the net profit goes beyond care for the needs of the family & # 39; a year, which, including food, is less than $ 800. After increasing income from rotation crops such as wheat, corn, and beans, and revenues from milk, eggs, and poultry, the practice in the family's house. s standard of living evolving from a level of subsistence to one comparing favorably with those who hold mid-management positions in the industry. Not only is the advent of sugarbeets radically improving the standard of living for growing beets but also building its reputation as a debt-collector. A farmer growing beets is being asked by bankers who are eager to find reliable lenders, allowing many farmers to move quickly from subsistence farms to high income and at the end of the estate situation.
The U.S. Department of Agriculture's official recognition in 1898 of the importance of the sugar industry – coupled with the success that took place in the home with the first extraordinary results of the Essexville factory, spurred rapid growth. A year earlier the country boasted only ten sugar factories, four of them in California, one in Utah, two in Nebraska and three in New York. The establishment of the seven sugar factories in 1898 focused on the first time that stirred up a rush, one that began with a global boom in the 1900s when the world number one rose to thirty sugar factories in sugar in eleven states.
It has never been hotter than Michigan where nine factories followed in Essexville & # 39; s a successful experiment. An explosion of cyclonic energy causes fury when investors, construction workers, bankers, and farmers combine energy and expertise to survive eight factories a year! They are in Holland, Kalamazoo, Rochester, Benton Harbor, Alma, West Bay City, Caro, and the second Essexville factory. In Marine City, investors, inspired by Essexville's success, paid Kilby Manufacturing $ 557,000 to build Michigan & # 39; tenth sugarbeet factory. Despite quitting construction factories and engineers to operate them, ten & # 39; g of four additional factories stand outside Michigan's cities for the next six years, the last of which featured Blissfield in 1905. Fifteen years ago, the Monitor Sugar Company established the state & # 39; s twenty-nine and final beet factory.
In 1898, when the ardor burned in the heat, enthusiasts shouted that Michigan would soon become like a field of sugarbeets off the southeastern border of the northern tip of the Lower Peninsula. Lawmakers are stunned by fears that Public Act 48, designed to stimulate a new industry, could unleash a snake that will consume the state's budget & # 39; s. They stood in stunned silence as expressed by Roscoe Dix, the state & # 39; s Auditor General of the Public Act 48 constitution. The decision, later endorsed by the Michigan Supreme Court, cooled the appetite for sugar canes because the case was solid and after all there was still hope that the U.S. Supreme Court would reverse the decision of the supreme court. I'm sorry. It's a decision. That effort failed when the U.S. Supreme Court rejected an appeal on the grounds of jurisdiction. The court's decision and # 39; nothing more than a sweltering speed in Michigan where increased appetite for beets brought fresh capital to cities that would otherwise have suffered from the loss of light in the timber industry.
If given the credit of an effort made sixty years ago, the Essexville factory in Michigan & # 39; s second beet factory. By the 1830s, Europe's new practice of extracting sugar-like sugarcane from beets had attracted small-minded but small-minded groups of investors in Pennsylvania, Massachusetts, and Michigan. The latter group took the name "White Pigeon" after the town where the company was organized. Experiments in Michigan and Massachusetts led to the construction of large-scale factories to produce large quantities of white sugar in commercial quantities. The first factories, excavating relics of French origin, averaged five tons of sugarbeets per day, an amount processed in less than sixty seconds at today's factories I'm sorry. The goal of making sugar cane was not achieved, both of which failed in 1841.
While it's certainly a good idea to have more fathers, the Michigan industry knows more than anyone. It was Professor Robert Kedzie, a legendary professor of chemistry at the Michigan Agricultural College (later, Michigan State University) and a consumer advocate for the nation helping the nation to end the practice of making arsenic-laden wallpaper and volatile kerosene. He came up with the idea of an agricultural extension service. He spends more than fifteen years researching sugar sugar, ultimately earning the "Daddy of the Michigan Sugar Industry" for his consistent devotion to the belief that sugarbeets will play a vital role in the future. Michigan farm & # 39;
By 1906, thanks to Robert Kedzie and many city leaders across the state who were willing to take desperate measures to save the dying communities, the sugar cane industry & # 39; 's sugar industry & # 39; The sugar industry has become one of the three main groups to remain the majority. remained unchanged for the next 100 years. The first consists of factories that have experienced a lifespan of at least ten years, one of which is the first factory in Michigan & # 39; in Essexville. Others were included in four of the eight factories that existed in 1899.
The factories in Rochester, Kalamazoo and Benton Harbor along with the one at Charlevoix were built by strong industrialists who believed in their own inventiveness that when the farmers arrived, "build it and they will come" . The theory failed to be the result of sugar when farmers saw little reason to supply useful fruits and vegetables for a factory-dependent product to move farm products that could become salty. . The factories failed because of the lack of beets.
Lumber baron Worthy Churchill led a group of investors with the idea of building a 600 tonne sugar factory directly across the street from the Michigan Sugar Company & # 39; s Essexville factory, actually believes that the factory & # 39; s 350-ton Slice capacity makes it an easy target for an aggressive competitor. She was right. In 1903, he convinced Tom Cranage, president of Sugar in Michigan and # 39; s to join his new company. They named the new corporation, Bay City-Michigan Sugar Company, which effectively ended the existence of the original Sugar Company and then began the process of closing the small factory.
In addition to the group of factories set for short life there are still seven who remain independent and live an average of 41 years. Leading them was the Holland factory that by all standards had to go to other famous 350-ton factories but under the auspices of Charles McLean, a former superintendent of the school with the burden of a trap, left the factory for 37 years. The Holland factory was the only factory in the United States to close operations on Sunday, doing so for the first eleven years at a cost of efficiency but in line with the religious conviction of most of the community.
Bay City in 1899 was still a fast cook and & # 39; It's paradise to enjoy the last hurray of harvesting the tree while looking for a usable replacement. Among the ruins of a decaying industry is the town's increase & # 39; The third beet factory, presents another example of sustainability, a partnership that Holland demonstrates in terms of an individual's livelihood and will to achieve success.
Mendel J. Bialy, a mill manager of scrappy lumber, a bookkeeper by training, gathered a group of investors, who, like himself, had no experience in making sugar cane. Together they organized the West Bay City Sugar Company in 1898. Investors awarded a contract with Bartlett and Howard, a Maryland iron company seeking an entry into a hot new industry – make sugar.
That's how much confidence Bialy & # 39; that he determined himself to be qualified to operate the factory without the assistance of technicians studying the sugar factory intricacies. The outcome is not catastrophic. The factory achieved about 126 pounds of sugar per tonne of snakes, a 48% take-up rate when factories consistently reached 65-69%. Even the factory in Holland, where operations stopped at twelve hours on Sundays, recorded a higher take-up rate of 53%.
The triggers of the rumors of the imminent departure have done so without considering Mendel Bialy's indomitable spirit & # 39; The factory continued operations for 38 campaigns on a shoestring budget and a love of poverty by factory managers who helped with spare parts, efficiency and patience.
Five additional factories balance the balance of the independents, each with a story like Holland and West Bay City where sustainability, ridicule, hard work and dedicated artisans bring life to the factories that instead the economic well-being of the people and the people. farmers on the same side. Four factories exist in Mount Clemens, Menominee, St. Louis St. Louis, and Bay City. The new Bay City factory is the fourth one built in the city and # 39; s environs that supply these sugar factories more than any American city. Originally run under the name German-American Sugar Company, it flourished at the Monitor Sugar Company. The fifth was built in Blissfield where a famous show factory started on the stage only to collapse in a few years ago when chief founder and benefactor Henry O. Havemeyer, died suddenly heart attack.
By the end of 1905, the sugar industry in Michigan had begun to tremble like a child & # 39; s top end at the end of a solid twirl. The factories opened just a few years ago to the sound of blowing, marching bands and patriotic speeches from political luminaries were left behind in the bars to ridicule the forces that provided them. Seven factories were closed, Essexville and five others were located in Kalamazoo, Rochester, Benton Harbor, Marine City, Saginaw, and East End often because farmers ignored the appeals of representatives in the factory grow beets. Sixteen beet factories with a combined daily cut capacity of nearly eleven thousand tons remain in business.
Despite the catastrophes elsewhere a new company was formed, one that could eventually be the only surviving sugar company in the # & 39; This occurred on August 20, 1906 when the Bay City-Michigan Sugar Company negotiated an agreement with Charles Beecher Warren, the chief shareholder and native of Bay City, to form a new company, one crediting the name. this, Michigan Sugar Company, from Michigan & The pioneer of # 39; enters the beet industry.
Michigan Sugar Company's new balance sheet & # 39; evaluated the assets of six sugar factories located in Michigan. Companies, in addition to the Bay City-Michigan Sugar Company, the Saginaw Valley Sugar Company in Carrollton, the Peninsular Sugar Company in Caro, the Alma Sugar Company in Alma, the Sanilac Sugar Refining Company in Croswell, and the Sebewaing Sugar Company It's a Rent. Warren will serve as president of the company & # 39; s until 1925 when he resigned in anticipation of accepting an appointment by President Coolidge as Attorney General of the United States. A notable break in the U.S. Senate, however, points to the Warren & # 39; in the sugar industry, rejecting the nomination by a narrow vote. Coolidge's Vice President & # 39; s, Charles Dawes, who could change the vote in favor of Warren & # 39;, a short sleep in the Willard Hotel if the vote is called. He arrived in the Senate room late to change the outcome. This is the first time since 1868 that the U.S. Senate rejected a presidential cabinet nomination, ending both Warren & # 39; respected career in the public service and his association with the sugar industry. Previously, he served as Ambassador to Japan (1922-1923) and Ambassador to Mexico in 1925.
Eight years after its founding, Michigan Sugar, in 1924, added two more factories to the corporate roster when the sugar factories of the Owosso and Lansing accounts joined the company. Twenty-four years later, in 1948, Michigan Sugar acquired the Mount Pleasant factory in a move calculated to obtain the acreage derivatives mandated under the 1948 federal legislation. The factory was founded by the Monitor Sugar Company in 1920 and acquired by the Isabella Sugar Company in 1933. Members of the Coryell family under the leadership of Charles Coryell held control of the Monitor Sugar Company until 1982, which at one time held back control. interest in Isabella Sugar Company. By 1948, the factory had become a derelict, useful only for the odd parts and marketing allocations assigned by the U.S. Department of Agriculture, a non-finalization of a company that successfully pioneered the ionization process through ion exchange fifty years before the process gained acceptance in the domestic sugar industry.
At the close of the three factories of Menominee, Blissfield, and St. St. Louis in 1954, the state of Michigan had only two companies remaining, the Michigan Sugar Company at that time operating four of its nine factories, Caro, Carrollton, Croswell, and Sebewaing, while the Monitor Sugar Company operates one in Bay City. Both companies will operate in competition with each other for the next half-century up to the Michigan Sugar Company, the immediate cooperative and # 39; s cooperative owned by 1,300 sugarbeet growers in 2002, acquired the Monitor Sugar Company from the Illovo Sugar Company in Durban. South Africa on October 1, 2004.
Today, the combined factories, each of which exemplifies modern extraction technology, have a beet-cutting capacity of 22,000 tonnes per day (excluding Carrollton where production was suspended in 2005) and an ability producing over one billion pounds of sugar every year. Sugar comes in the market place in grains, powders, browns or liquid formulas containing bags ranging from two pounds to 2,000 pounds or in cargo. In addition, the company markets more than 150,000 tonnes of molasses and pulp by-products, mixed with sugar products, giving the state of Michigan a significant presence in the domestic food industry. Everywhere, for sure, Governor Pingree, who has done so much to promote an economic marvel, continues to smile.